MareLife inputs to the Conference
1. Main session contains high esteem speakers from world leading marine science, technology and innovation organisations in addition to the captains of the industries and finance.
2. Scientific pre-conference contains world leading marine scientists covering all marine sectors. In collaboration with The Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters and The Research Council of Norway.
The agenda will embrace all marine sectors and cover three sessions: 1) Marine diversity and genomics (marine environments and climate change included) 2) Culturing the Aquatic 3) Marine products and human health.
CHAIRED BY Professor and President The Norwegian Academy of Sciences and letters
Nils Chr Stenseth
Nils Christian Stenseth is a biologist with a focus on ecology and evolution. He is the leader of the Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES) at the University of Oslo. He is also serving as a Chief Scientist at the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In December 2006, CEES was given Centre of Excellence status by the Research Council of Norway. Stenseth was elected President The Norwegian Academy of Sciences and letters 2010.
MODERATED BY Director Norwegian biotechnology Advisory Board
Sissel Rogne is Director General of the Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board and Professor in Gene technology since 1992. She holds professorship in gene technology at University of Bergen, Institute for social medicine and at the University of Life Science, Institute of ecology and nature management.
Professor Rogne has broad scientific merits in medicine, aquaculture and agriculture. She has been chairing Akvaforsk AS (now part of Nofima) and the division of bio-production at the Research Council of Norway.
MODERATED BY Expert Consultant Foresight
Rita Westvik has a broad background from media (NRK, TV3, radiOrakel), politics (political adviser to the Gro Harlem Brundtland Government) and R&D (10 years as a senior adviser in SINTEF Technology and society). She was founder of Futurama AS 2000 and President of The Polytechnic Society in Oslo 2005-2007.
Westvik has designed and hosted several conferences in the field of innovation and societal implications of accelerating technologies.
3. Innovative cases. Prior and during the conference, carefully selected innovative cases covering all marine waves and the entire value chain will be exposed as posters and on the MareLife website. The best will be awarded an innovation prize.
Read reports about this conference and download PDF versions of presentations given.
Microbial Carbon Pump —- A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Sciences, Xiamen University, 361005 P. R. China
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000 – 6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept – the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools to a recalcitrant carbon reservoir, pumping organic carbon from low concentrations of labile DOM to high concentrations of recalcitrant DOM, building up a huge reservoir for carbon storage over time. Meanwhile the MCP transfers more carbon relative to nitrogen and phosphorus from the reactive organic matter pool into recalcitrant organic matter pool. Compared with the solubility pump, an abiotic mechanism for carbon storage in the ocean which has ocean acidification impacts on marine organisms and biogeochemical cycles, the MCP-driven recalcitrant DOM carbon storage does not appreciably alter the buffering capacity of seawater and has no known negative impact on marine organisms. Furthermore, in the ocean warming scenario, the partitioning of biogenic carbon flow will change, with the flow to POM diminishing and that to DOM increasing, and thus the role of the MCP in carbon storage will most likely enhanced. A working group joined by 26 scientists from 12 countries has been formed under the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR-WG134) to address this multi-faceted biogeochemical issue related to carbon cycling in the ocean and global climate changes.
Systems engineering and life science hand in hand to create next generation aquaculture
Dr. Karl A. Almås
CEO SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway
The global aquaculture industry has to double the production during the next 30-40 years to meet the expected market demand for fish. This production increase will mainly take place in the marine environment as (1) a better utilization of the areas we are using to day, (2) introduction of multi trophic production systems and (3) offshore aquaculture in exposed areas. To obtain a sustainable (both environmental, economical and socially) production growth, we have to overcome new technological challenges. The industry will be more industrialized in all parts of the value chain. New technology will be introduced to monitor the environmental consequences, large scale offshore aquaculture requires new constructions and logistic system, new feed resources have to be introduced and the processing industry has be cost effective and automated. Generic technologies and systems engineering will be the basis for the new and industrialized solutions that will make the global growth of the aquaculture industry possible. Relevant examples from ongoing research projects and industrial applications will be discussed during the presentation
Host-pathogen co-evolution and the emergence of novel infections in coldwater aquaculture
Norwegian Scholl of Veterinary Science
Salmonid aquaculture can offer almost ideal environments for viruses to prosper. High density monoculture of hosts, numerous possible routes of transmission, and suboptimal protection by available vaccination for several viral diseases are factors contributing to this. Infectious diseases do not respect national boundaries or international maritime laws and have negative effects on both production and on export of aquaculture products. If fish health authorities don’t handle risk management efficiently, outbreaks may spread. Effective vaccines are available for only a limited number of serious fish viral diseases. The key to control viral epidemics is to block the transmission of infection. This requires knowledge about reservoirs, susceptibility of infection for different species, the pattern of shedding of virus and survival of viral infectivity outside host, i.e. host –pathogen interaction in a broad context. Development of effective vaccines preventing will be necessary to control future risks for an industrialized aquaculture production to be sustainable.
Novel feed ingredients: sources and potentials in aquaculture
Aquaculture Protein Centre
Scarcity of marine ingredients and increased focus on sustainability have led to a dramatic change in fish feed composition from being marine based toward a diversified diet containing more plant ingredients. Although plant ingredients have been demonstrated to successfully replace part of the traditional fish meal in fish diets, such diets may not give the same productivity and may affect fish health, in particular of carnivorous fish like Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The suitability of plant ingredients may be limited by a high level of starch and structural carbohydrates, low level of protein, unfavorable amino acid composition, lower nutrient availability, and a wide variety of antinutritional factors (ANFs). Certain plant protein sources, especially soybean meal, contain ANFs that may cause inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract as well as reduced nutrient digestibility and growth performance in salmon. Recent results, however, have shown that a combination of plant and microbial ingredients represent a sustainable alternative to fish meal, in that they support high productivity and protect the gastrointestinal tract against the adverse effects of ANFs.
Identifying molecular effecst of diets containing marine products
Britt Gabrielsson, PhD
Chalmers University of Technology
Changes in lifestyle have resulted in a rapid world-wide increase of non-communicable diseases e.g. diabetes, cardio-/cerebrovascular disease and cancer. Diet is a significant modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease and high fish intake has been associated with vascular health in population studies whereas intervention studies have been inconclusive. To evaluate how diet and/or specific nutrients affect health there is a need to develop novel methods to identify how nutrient intake affects metabolism also at the level of tissues. Therefore, male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were fed a 16-week high fat/high sucrose diet, supplemented with either minced herring or beef. The diets were matched in total fat/cholesterol and taurine content. Body weights, body composition, plasma lipid concentrations and aortic plaque areas were measured. Gene expression profiles of liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were performed and integrated with metabolic networks to identify dietary effects in the three tissues. The physiological data suggested that negative effects on health associated with consumption of energy-dense foods can be improved by supplementing the diet with healthier food options. Note however that the protein source of the reference diet, i.e. lean beef, is also considered to be a healthy food choice. It is therefore likely that intake of herring has an added value compared with beef due to its high content of several known bioactive food compounds. Furthermore, the strategy to apply gene expression data to metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. The herring-fed mice had a decreased hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis. In skeletal muscle, herring-feeding appeared to lower protein turnover. Analysis of concerted dietary effects across the three tissues revealed a common theme, namely calcium handling. Thus, the application of systems biology methodology can further the understanding how nutrition can affect health where subtle changes in several tissues in combination affects whole body metabolic processes.
Current and Innovative Vaccinology in world fish farming
Dr L. Grisez
Director Global Aquatic Animal Health R&D, Intervet/Schering-Plough
Fish vaccinology today has more techniques and knowledge available then ever before and our knowledge increases exponentially with more gene sequences and more powerful analysis techniques becoming available daily. The current knowledge base is used throughout the farming industry resulting in incremental improvements in husbandry, fish breeds for production, nutrition and health.
True innovation in fish farming in general and vaccinology in particular will come through leaving the established path of segregated research and going into a combined interdisciplinary approach in research targeting tomorrow’s fish.
MabCent-SFI, a Bioprospecting Centre at the University of Tromsø
Trond Ø. Jørgensen
Professor and Director of MabCent-SFI, UiT
MabCent-SFI is one out of fourteen Research-Based Innovation Centers initiated by the Research Council of Norway, but the only one within the field of “bioactive compounds and drug discovery” based on bioactives from marine organisms. Thus MabCent-CRI is focusing on bioactives from Arctic and sub-Arctic organisms searching for compounds for innovation and commercialization, in areas where Norway currently has the potential to achieve a strong international position. As a marine environment, the high Arctic is unparalleled with respect to combination of temperature and light regimes. This implies an evolution of a variety of organisms with unique physiological and biochemical adaptations and with a correspondingly good prospect for finding novel bioactives and lead compounds. The MabCent integrates various disciplines and partnerships of academics at the University of Tromsø (UoT) and experts at SMEs, acting in a consortium. Thus the center covers the pipeline from biology of marine resources/species through screening and characterization / optimalization of bioactive molecules to commercialisation of drugs, biotech and nutraceutical products. The resources to be focused are marine bacteria harvested on the surface of the ice pack or deep water sediments, various marine biota and marine microalgae sampled under different blooming conditions, in addition to a huge variety of benthic invertebrates found in the Arctic seas. The national marine biobank, Marbank, is organising the sampling and produce extracts to the “high-through-put” screening platform, Marbio. Compounds and molecules active against bacteria, tumour cells and inflammation as well as immuno stimulants, anti-oxidants and various enzymes and inhibitors are further isolated and characterised by their structure and “mode of action” at the NorStruct, SmallStruct and FUGE-N-technological platforms and by the MabCent partners. All these technological platforms are state-of-the-art equipped for the tasks and targets running in the MabCent operation. The four commercial MabCent partners are acting in an R&D synergy although at different levels and areas (pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, research tools etc.). Through their interaction with the interdisciplinary expertise at UoT and academic partners, the MabCent initiative intend to nurse research and innovation and setting standards for future marine-based discovery and development within the field of marine bioprospecting / biotechnology in Norway.
Salmon whole genome approaches to advance aquaculture and wild stock management
Centre for Integrative Genetics, Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Efforts are now undertaken to generate a genome sequence that identifies and physically maps all genes in the Atlantic salmon genome (through The International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome – ICSASG). The availability of a complete genome sequence for Atlantic salmon will have a major impact on all sectors of the international salmonid community. For the aquaculture industry it will provide a complete suite of genetic markers for the identification of the genes and alleles responsible for production traits (e.g. disease resistance, growth, feed efficiency and product quality) which enable industry to adopt genome based selection tools that are far more cost efficient than conventional methods. For government agencies with a mandate to conserve and manage wild stocks, the sequence will provide the tools that will make it possible to identify and distinguish discrete populations of wild salmon and monitor possible gene flow from escaped farmed fish.
Genomic selection: numerical and molecular science for genetic enhancements
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Most aquacultural species have their genome sequenced or the sequence is expected to become available in the near future. Together with the sequence often millions of Single Nucleotide (SNP) genetic markers become available, and recent advances in SNP-chip genotyping technology has made the genotyping of large numbers of animals for 100 of thousands of SNPs cost effective. The question that I will address here is what are we going to do with all this information. From a genetic improvement perspective, the answer is genomic selection, i.e. the simultaneous selection for thousands of SNP markers without identifying which of the markers is actually causing genetic differences. Genomic selection has proven dramatically more effective than the alternative approach of trying to identify the genes underlying the genetic differences and selecting for these known genes.
Microalgae – a largely untapped reservoir of novel and valuable compounds
IGV Institut fur Getreideverarbeitung GmbH
Since recently, microalgae are cultivated in various types of technical systems. The question today is how to design system that introduce best both CO2 and sunlight – two main sources of microalgal biomass to grow. The sources of CO2 are various, but mostly it mean industrial “waste products” like stack gases from cement plants or other industrial productions. To put into operation a zero emission plants is a future goal. The existing closed photobioreactors of the plate and tubular type configuration , which are producing cell densities up to 10 E9 ml-1 and high biomass concentrations are used for the biotechnological production of high value products like colouring agents, PUFA and algal polysaccharides of pharmalogical potential and cosmetic ingredients. New configuration shall make other products economical like bioplastics or cement enhancers which do not require the high standards of quality which have to be met for human / animal consumption products. New potential fields for the more economical configuration are in the bioenergy sector, whether as biodiesel or bio-ethanol or other bioenergy products, but also for traditional products like animal feed. Among more than 40,000 species of microalgae, lies the huge potential for the future products. Still the relevant strains especially for the bioenergetical use have to be identified and field tested. The IGV GmbH sold worldwide over 180 photobioreactors, some in cooperation with Sartorius Stedim Biotech S.A. . The IGV GmbH gained reference through the development and construction of a 700 m³ photobioreactor facility in Kloetze, Germany and the testing of other design in AZ, USA.
Whole genome approaches to advance aquaculture and wild stock management.
Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES)
Gadoid fishes comprise a lineage of large, cold-adapted, predatory teleosts in the Northern Hemisphere. We present the genome sequence of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), obtained exclusively by massively parallel pyrosequencing of a combination of shotgun and paired-end libraries of various insert lengths and refined assembly routines, followed by comprehensive automated annotation. The approach provided a sequence of sufficient accuracy and long-range continuity to allow extensive comparative analyses and extraction of new biological and evolutionary insights. We report evidence for the co-evolution of regulative and structural adaptation of globin genes as well as evidence for a striking immunoevolutionary event. Atlantic cod has lost key components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II system as no functional genes are found for MHCII, invariant chain and CD4. In contrast, we find a significant expansion of the MHCI gene family, and expansion and deletions of specific genes of the innate immune system. These observations imply that the relationship between immune system architecture and immunocompetence is more complex than previously anticipated and set limits to the use of mammalian-derived models to appraise immune function in divergent vertebrate lineages. Furthermore, the lessons from the cod genome has implications for management of cod fisheries and for aquaculture (vaccines and breeding). These issues will also be discussed in the talk.
Marine fish stocks and ecosystems: dynamics, management and research needs
Hein Rune Skjoldal
Institute of Marine Research, Norway
Large commercial fish stocks are not only important to the fishing industry as a source of valued nutritious seafood but they are also of great ecological importance. Marine ecosystems are highly dynamic and notoriously variable and changing. Commercial fish stocks play important roles for the dynamics and variability of marine ecosystems. This is related to the reproductive mode of fishes where many lay thousands to millions of eggs which hatch into tiny larvae that are spread with the ocean currents. This passive drift of fish larvae to suitable nursery areas is one component of the geographical closure of the life cycle, where feeding migrations and spawning migration back to the spawning grounds are other elements. Fish navigate and ’know’ the oceanography of the areas in which they live, that is their ‘home waters’ or habitats. They respond to changes in the ocean circulation driven by climate variability. This leads to order of magnitude changes in stock sizes, which have repercussive implications both upwards and downwards in the food webs of the marine ecosystems. The regulatory mechanisms that on the one hand generate variation and on the other dampen the fluctuations and contribute to the dynamic stability of marine ecosystems including fish resources are the cutting-edge front of marine science. This is where there is no distinction between basic and applied science. The fundamental understanding of how marine ecosystems work and how they are regulated is also a required basis for application of the ecosystem approach to management to achieve sustainable use of resources and conservation of ecosystem integrity.